95: Giving Feedback (SSBIR)

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Center for Creative Leadership Model for Giving Feedback (SSBIR):
  • Set the Stage: Intention / readiness to listen:
    • Ask if now is a good time to share feedback
    • Prepare listener for feedback
  • State the Situation:
    • What, where, when of the situation
  • State the Behavior:
    • Report facts (not interpretations, judgements) about behavior
  • State the Impact:
    • Most important step
    • Describe how behavior is affecting situations, time, money, and stakeholders
  • Resolution:
    • Ask how to resolve situation
    • Ask how to prevent future occurrences
    • If behavior is good, ask – how can we continue or enhance this?
When to give feedback:
  • Frequently
    • Easier to reinforce behavior
    • Start with positive feedback
    • Put money in emotional bank account
  • Timely
    • While experience is fresh
    • Don’t wait till experience or project is done
    • Can give feedback as they approach goals
    • Put money in emotional bank account
  • Development opportunity
    • Communicate opportunities to achieve goals
  • Solve performance problems
    • After there is money in the emotional bank account
    • Help listener arrive at strategies that will improve performance
More feedback tips
  • If it’s important, make an appointment for feedback
  • Be sensitive to power imbalance (choose neutral location to mitigate this)
  • Keep it simple
  • Leverage their strengths
  • Prepare feedback to fit listener’s communication style
  • Offer suggestions and support
  • Get their feedback about the feedback
3-sowhat
Giving constructive feedback is an important skill for teachers to have in order to set and manage high classroom expectations.  This is also an important skill to teach to students so they can communicate in ways that set and manage high expectations for their project teams.  The SSBIR method is a process that can be practiced by teachers and students in order to give both positive and negative feedback.

 

4-nowwhatPreparation Steps

  • Create visuals and role-play situations for SSBIR method
  • Create visuals and handouts for feedback methods and tips
  • Practice using SSBIR method in classroom and team management situations

Early Implementation Steps

  • Model and role-play SSBIR method with student teams.  Have each student practice being the speaker and the listener in the process.
  • Have students reflect on practice sessions with SSBIR method and predict when they will use this method in the future to give both positive and negative feedback.
  • Stage times for teams to have meetings dedicated to SSBIR feedback cycles so that students can practice giving each other constructive feedback.

Advanced Implementation Steps

  • Make frequent constructive feedback a part of team management routines.
  • Have students reflect on the SSBIR conversations and offer suggestions for how they can be better speakers and listeners during these conversations.
  • Have students document the next steps that emerge from SSBIR conversations and add these to their team’s goal setting documentation.
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94: Experiential Learning Characteristics

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12 Characteristics of Effective Experiential Learning Characteristics
  1. Equality:
    • Builds common ground through common experiences
    • All participants are equal in their knowledge to complete tasks
  2. Relationship Build Quickly:
    • Problem solving involves collaboration, communication, cooperation and physical effort
    • Participants interact a lot
    • Participants need to rely on each other – builds trust
    • Opportunities for people to get to know each other
  3. Disequilibrium:
    • Unfamiliarity of challenges puts people in state of disorder or disequilibrium.
    • Participants are stripped of normal roles and status.
    • Group self-organizes around challenge
  4. Projective Technique:
    • Group projects their leadership, collaboration and problem solving styles unto the experience.
    • Challenge shows what participants “typically do”
    • Leads to profound learning about work patterns and habits
  5. Decreased Cycle Time:
    • Task completion time is compressed so there is time to reflect
    • Learning can occur quickly – close in time to problem completion
  6. Meta Learning:
    • Participants use reflections on activity to learn about their leadership, collaboration & problem solving skills
  7. Chaos Management in a Safe Environment:
    • Teams experience change and resulting chaos in a safe space
    • Consequences for failure are limited
    • Teams develop strategies relating to change they can take back to normal workplace
  8. Kinesthetic Imprint:
    • Multi-dimensional learning – visual, hands on, mental, behavioral, physical, spiritual
    • Hands on activities help make lasting impression
  9. Common Language / Story-Making:
    • Experience creates common language, story & imagery that can be leverage in workplace
    • Common language shortcuts communication of common vision
    • Training experience is scripted to get participants to see themselves in a new light
    • Common story serves as a catalyst for change
  10. Encourages Risk-Taking:
    • Participants try out new roles
    • Participants take risks
    • Make mistakes with few costs
    • Risks are perceived vs actual
    • Try things out of comfort zone
  11. Diversity of Strengths:
    • Different strengths need to come together to solve the problem
    • Emphasized interdependencies of the team
  12. Fun: 
    • Offers fun ways to learn how to be a high performing team
    • Fun builds more open-mindedness

 

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The 12 characteristics of experiential learning can be used to design collaboration and team building activities that get students to problem solve, relate, connect, and reflect around common memorable experiences.  These experiences can be used to create a common language and common story around effective collaboration strategies.

 

4-nowwhat
Preparation Steps
  • Research team building activity
  • Use the 12 characteristics to make sure activity has all the characteristics of an effective experiential learning task
  • Brainstorm how to add revisions that enhance strengths of activity
  • Brainstorm how to add revisions that fill in activity gaps
Early Implementation Steps
  • Facilitate experiential training with students
  • Facilitate related discussions that get students to learn more about how they collaborate, lead, and problem solve
  • Facilitate discussions that get students to identify, share and document effective strategies
Advanced Implementation Steps
  • Display effective strategies learned during experiential training
  • Have students deliberately implement strategies during their team work time
  • Have students reflect on how to improve, build upon collaboration and problem solving strategies

 

5-relatedstuff.

93: Meeting Menace vs. Master

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Meeting Menace Behaviors:
  • Gets and acts irritated or upset at meetings
  • Frequently interrupts peoples at meetings
  • Asks question like weapons – not for inquiry, disguised statements
  • Over talks issues to advocate only one’s ideas
  • Makes disagreements a grand performance
  • Fails to build on other’s ideas
  • Doesn’t acknowledge others
  • Puts others on the spot – ask them to take sides on a conflict
  • Doesn’t notice when others see debates as uncomfortable conflicts / confrontations
  • Interrogates people in a condescending matter
Meeting Master Behaviors:
  • Takes time to prepare for meetings
  • Decides desired outcomes for each statement made
  • Asks clarifying questions before advocating for points
  • Asks colleagues for feedback
  • Before the meeting:
    • Defines purpose and objectives of meeting
    • Selects participants
    • Secures space and equipment
    • Prepares agenda and send it out ahead of time
    • Ask if anyone wants to add items to agenda
    • Conducts final check of meeting room
  • During the meeting:
    • Start promptly
    • Assign roles
      • Facilitator:
        • keeps meeting going and aligned to agenda
        • holds people to meeting norms.  see below
        • maintains a parking lot for off topic but interesting items
      • Scribe:
        • Takes meeting notes (minutes)
        • Shares notes within 48 hours of meeting
      • Participants
        • Follow norms
        • Add value to meeting
        • Notify others if you can’t make it to meeting
    • Prioritizes agenda time frames at meeting start
    • Manages time
    • Adopts and observes meeting norms such as
      • Arrive on time
      • Be well-prepared
      • Be concise.
      • Make “I” statements.
      • Don’t hold sidebar conversations.
      • Participate in a constructive manner.
      • Seek first to understand before being understood.
      • Make your thinking visible.
      • Don’t interrupt.
    • Hears from everyone
    • Limits or encourages discussion (depends on timing and prioritization of agenda items)
    • Clarifies actions to be taken
    • Summarizes results
  • After the meeting:
    • Gathers self / peer feedback on meeting
      • Satisfied with meeting? (0 – 10 score)
      • What was good, bad, and in need of improvement?
      • How on track was meting? (0-10 score)
    • Restores the room
    • Ensures scribe shares minutes
    • Follows up on agreed upon actions
    • Prepares next steps
    • Evaluates the content (what) and processes (how) used during meeting
Meeting Types:
  • Stand-ups:
    • 10-15 minutes
    • other names: red flag meetings, huddles
    • team stands in a circle
    • each person has opportunity to say something or pass
    • not a problem solving meeting
    • acceptable topics:
      • everyone’s need-to-know info
      • red flag issues – someone needs help to solve an urgent problem
      • share new info
      • share progress reports
      • clarify vision or deliverables
      • celebrate small wins
Meeting Checklist:
  1. Meeting leadership:
    • agenda was clear and explained up front
    • conveyed overall purpose of meeting
    • honored time frames
  2. Accountability:
    • individuals were prepared for meeting
    • actions had a clear assignment, owner and deadline
    • clarified resources for tasks
    • considered other stakeholder’s impact and involvement
  3. Communication:
    • Summary of decisions communicated
    • Summary of actions and their owners communicated
    • Next steps were stated and clarified
    • People evaluated the meeting and discussed improvements
3-sowhat
Adding value to meetings by exhibit meeting mastery behaviors and avoiding meeting menace behaviors is critical to making good lasting impressions in the work place.  People tend to get thin-sliced or permanently characterized (judged) by the snapshots of their character displayed at meetings.  People with positive snapshots tend to be more trusted.  Those with negative snapshots tend to stimulate negative feelings from co-workers such as dismissal, fear, and distrust.

 

Teaching students how to be meeting masters can prepare them to convey positive messages to their peers and future co-workers about their collaboration and leadership styles.  All of the meeting master behaviors are skills that can be modeled and practiced over time.

 

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Preparation Steps
  • Develop checklists of meeting menace and meeting master behaviors.
  • Have students use the checklists to reflect upon the behaviors they have exhibited at class and team meetings.  Use this reflection to plan next steps and improvements
Early Implementation Steps
  • Model meeting master behaviors.
  • Teach students how to facilitate and participate in effective short and longer meetings.
  • Teach students how to communicate better at meetings – types of important communication – courteous, summarizing, curious, open, perspective and empathy building, etc
  • Role play meeting types with groups so they can practice meeting skills
Advanced Implementation Steps
  • Incorporate routine team meetings into project work days.  Support these meeting with checklists of meeting actions and meeting roles & responsibilities.
  • Have students document their meeting minutes in some form and share these with you.
5-relatedstuff

92: Collaboration Strategies (3 of 3)

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For this article, I will insert – Classroom moves – in the WHAT section so that I don’t lose track of them before the NOW WHAT section.

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7  –  Appreciation of Differences
  • Average version
    • Values team mates with similar backgrounds and opinions
  • Star version
    • Embraces differences and creative tensions
    • Matches unique talents to best fit positions
  • Star actions
    • Spend time learning team members’ unique talents and deciding how they can be best used for the team
    • Hold conversation with team about their team IQ – rate it, discuss it, how to raise it?
    • Encourage team to stay with creative ambiguity as long as possible
    • Do not rush to decisions
    • Embrace differences
    • Knowing that holding contrary ideas long enough can lead to breakthroughs
    • Integrate differences into innovations
  • Related classroom moves
    • Get to know each student’s interests, talents, goals, etc.
    • Figure out how to measure team IQ and teach students how to measure it and use it to set goals and next steps for their collaboration growth
    • Challenge students to identify the connections and possibilities embedded in contrary pairs/groups of ideas
    • Develop team roles that are meaningful and that appeal to different students’ talents
    • Use different team roles to develop different talents in students
 
8 –   Accountability & consequences
  • Average version
    • Does not hold anyone accountable when team puts out a disappointing effort
  • Star version
    • Discusses accountability and consequences up front
    • Review accountability and consequence throughout the project
  • Star moves
    • Help individuals define clear roles and responsibilities
    • Provide clear definitions of success
    • Converse about accountabilities and consequences as part of the team’s formation
  • Related classroom moves
    • Guide students to create team contracts that clearly describe each person’s roles and responsibilities
    • Provide expectations and rubrics for success early in the project
    • Discuss expectations and refer to rubrics throughout the project
    • Guide students to create positive & negative consequences for their team that respond to typical situations and document these in their team contracts
    • Guide students through discussions during project that compare their current behavior with the agreements and consequences their team contracts
    • Collaborate with students to create class norms and specific expectations and the system of positive and negative consequences that support these.
 
9 –  Personal leadership
  • Average version
    • Completes a task and move on with little congratulations
  • Star version
    • When task is done, reflects on what work can be reused
    • Reflects on past performance to improve future performance
    • Decides who needs performance analysis info
    • Designs formal and informal celebrations for wins
  • Star moves
    • Hold sessions to brainstorm learnings and spread the news to the right people
    • Recognize individual’s and team’s efforts
    • Provide timely and specific feedback
  • Related classroom moves
    • Provide frequent formative feedback and teach students how to use it to improve understandings and products
    • Take time to recognize individual and team’s efforts
    • Facilitate reflections that get students to consolidate what they learned about content and themselves in projects and reflect / predict on how they might use that information in the future
    • Share insights with the right students in a timely manner throughout projects

 

3-sowhat

Collaboration is one of the most important NT learning outcomes.  Without strong collaboration skills, students can not effectively and positively complete projects with the aid of their team mates.   Most students do not naturally have these skills when they arrive at PBL schools because individual work is highly prioritized in most non-PBL learning environments.  Most PBL teachers did not attend PBL schools growing up, so they need training on what are / how to scaffold effective collaboration skills.

4-nowwhat
Preparation Steps
  • Research what are effective collaboration skills.  See Collaboration articles for ideas.
  • Design tools, practices, and scaffolds that promote effective collaboration skills.  See above and Collaboration articles for ideas.
Early Implementation Steps
  • Implement tools, practices and scaffolds that develop teacher’s and students’ collaboration skills.
  • Use informal assessments (observations supported by checklists) and student reflections to identify and fine tune effective strategies
Advanced Implementation Steps
  • Have students reflect and identify the collaboration strategies that are working best for themselves and why.
  • Incorporate effective strategies into classroom routines that promote strong collaboration in all student teams
5-relatedstuff

91: Collaboration Strategies (2 of 3)

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For this article, I will insert – Classroom moves – in the WHAT section so that I don’t lose track of them before the NOW WHAT section.

 

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4  –  Communication skills and conflict resolution
  • Average version
    • Avoids conflict
    • Jumps to conclusions
    • May fail to effectively communicate thoughts
    • Communicates the same way for everyone
  • Star version
    • Makes thinking known and heard
    • Identifies and acknowledges assumptions
    • Resolves conflicts
    • Varies communication style to suit teams and individuals
  • Star actions
    • Teach communication skills – listening skills, inquiry over advocacy, summarizing what was said
    • Appreciate differences and communicate differently to match these
    • Assign devil’s advocate to enliven discussions and avoid “group thinks
  • Related classroom moves
    • Teach and model good communication skills – listening skills, inquiry over advocacy, summarizing what was said
    • Let students take tests to identify their communication styles
    • Use communication tools to learn how to communicate with students who have varied communication styles
    • Teach students how to use tools that describe how people with the same or different communication styles can effectively communicate with teach other (model strategies and give practice opportunities)
    • Scaffold team conversations that allow all team members to communicate their thoughts and assumptions prior to making team decisions
    • Teach students how to have a conflict resolving conversations (model it and offer fake practice opportunities).  See here and here for ideas.
    • Teach students how to play devil’s advocate role.  Assign devil’s advocate role in specific class discussions.
 
5  –   Systems thinking
  • Average version
    • Focuses on his department with tying connections to other departments
    • Believes his team has little impact on other teams
  • Star version
    • Looks at big picture
    • Thinks of impact team has on others
    • Has a broad view of who are stakeholders (vendors, clients, family, etc)
    • Is aware of unintended impact and consequences
  • Star moves
    • Have team member assume perspectives of various stakeholders and examine issues from these perspectives
    • Encourage team to consider all possible consequences before making decisions
    • Counteract limited thinking such as – us vs. them, I am my position, etc
  • Related classroom moves
    • Have students reflect on how their decisions affect others
    • Connect projects to invested stakeholders that students need to consider while developing projects
    • Have students assume perspectives of different stake holders and examine their work from these perspectives
    • Guide students through brainstorming activities that help them realize all possible consequences for their choices prior to committing to selections
    • Teach students about limiting thinking or bad self talk patterns and to identify when those limiting patterns have affected them in the past
    • Teach students how to respond with their limiting self talk with more constructive, positive self talk
 
6  –  Personal leadership
  • Average version
    • Stays in own comfort zone
    • Only takes “safe bet” risks
  • Star version
    • Takes risks consistent with values
    • Stretches others to move beyond doubts and fears
  • Star moves
    • Cultivate a developed point of view of your leadership style
    • Know your leadership goals and vision
    • Vary your leadership style to connect and challenge with your team members
    • Share current areas of focus
    • Ask for support and feedback from team
    • Wear many hats at the right times – initiator, coach, model, facilitator, negotiator
    • Respond to team’s emotions with balancing actions – attention, humor, empathy
  • Related classroom moves
    • Be aware of the mood of your students as individuals and as teams
    • Use your awareness to select the appropriate message / style of communication
    • Be aware of your long term academic & cultural goals for your classes and how your strategies are working toward these (or not)
    • Share goals with students and ask for feedback from them
    • Ask students for frequent feedback on learning activities
    • Switch hats to suit the needs of your student (assessor, facilitator, coach, initiator, negotiator, director, follower, observer, etc.)
    • Teach students how to be aware of the moods of their teammates and teach them appropriate responses for stressful situations such as: team member is angry, overwhelmed, behind on work, confused, apathetic, etc.
    • Teach your students how to understand what communication strategies they find most motivating and how to communicate those to teachers and other students

 3-sowhat

Collaboration is one of the most important NT learning outcomes.  Without strong collaboration skills, students can not effectively and positively complete projects with the aid of their team mates.   Most students do not naturally have these skills when they arrive at PBL schools because individual work is highly prioritized in most non-PBL learning environments.  Most PBL teachers did not attend PBL schools growing up, so they need training on what are / how to scaffold effective collaboration skills.

 

4-nowwhat
Preparation Steps
  • Research what are effective collaboration skills.  See Collaboration articles for ideas.
  • Design tools, practices, and scaffolds that promote effective collaboration skills.  See above and Collaboration articles for ideas.
Early Implementation Steps
  • Implement tools, practices and scaffolds that develop teacher’s and students’ collaboration skills.
  • Use informal assessments (observations supported by checklists) and student reflections to identify and fine tune effective strategies
Advanced Implementation Steps
  • Have students reflect and identify the collaboration strategies that are working best for themselves and why.
  • Incorporate effective strategies into classroom routines that promote strong collaboration in all student teams

5-relatedstuff

90: Collaboration Strategies (1 of 3)

1-sources

 

For this article, I will insert – Classroom moves – in the WHAT section so that I don’t lose track of them before the NOW WHAT section.

 

2-what

 

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1  –  Shared Vision

  • Average version
    • Blurry vision of outcomes
    • Vision not shared enough with team members
  • Star version
    • Clear and inspiring vision
    • Communicates vision regularly
    • Vision is understood by all members
    • Vision is reinforced in numerous ways
  • Star actions
    • Communicate vision at least 4 times per day
    • Explain what needs to be done to fulfill vision
    • Explain why vision supports the team
    • Use the word because to tie vision to individuals
    • Include members from all levels to offer comments & clarifications – involvement = commitment
  • Related classroom moves
    • Design student friendly long term and supporting (character / academic ) learning targets
    • Communicate long term targets early in grading period (verbally, graphically, written)
    • Communicate supporting learning targets daily
    • Explain relevance of learning targets
    • Facilitate class discussion about learning targets – encourage students to clarify and revise targets
    • Have students self assess their progress using learning targets every day
    • Use multiple assessments to track progress toward learning targets daily
 

2  –   Trust among members

  • Average version
    • Relies only on herself
    • Does not expect much from others
  • Star version
    • Develops interdependency with others
    • Encourages high trust
    • Encourages high risk taking
  • Star moves
    • Develop trust by admitting mistakes
    • Make / keep small promises
    • Set high team expectations
    • Encourage risk taking
    • Encourage direct feedback
  • Related classroom moves
    • Make / keep promises about grades and follow-up workshops
    • Admit when activities are not working, how you know and involve students in fixing it
    • Set high classroom expectations
    • Allow students to conduct small tests of small risks in safe circumstances (gradually ramp up the scope of these learning risks and experiments)
    • Ask students for feedback on workshops, projects, etc.
    • Recruit and train student classroom leads and actively involve them in daily logistics
    • Have students assign team leadership roles; assign meaningful tasks to these roles
    • Hold team lead meetings to train classroom and team leads
 

3  –  Expectations and guidelines

  • Average version
    • Assumes co-workers are on same page
    • Assumes co-workers understand desired results
    • Assumes co-workers can read minds
  • Star version
    • Communicates and clarifies reciprocal expectations
    • Establishes guidelines for working together effectively
  • Star moves
    • Leaders decide with team how they will make decisions (majority, expert opinion, unanimous, etc)
    • Expectations clarified by leader
    • Team guidelines flow from agreed-upon expectations
  • Related classroom moves
    • Early in the year, design and implement activities to design classroom norms
    • Throughout the year, brainstorm strategies and guidelines that flow from classroom norms
    • Daily, clarify how current specific expectations align with learning targets and norms
    • Discuss and clarify expectations with students
    • Teach students about reciprocal expectations – what they are, effective ones, how to create and use them within their own teams

 

3-sowhat
Collaboration is one of the most important NT learning outcomes.  Without strong collaboration skills, students can not effectively and positively complete projects with the aid of their team mates.   Most students do not naturally have these skills when they arrive at PBL schools because individual work is highly prioritized in most non-PBL learning environments.  Most PBL teachers did not attend PBL schools growing up, so they need training on what are / how to scaffold effective collaboration skills.

 

4-nowwhat
Preparation Steps
  • Research what are effective collaboration skills.  See Collaboration articles for ideas.
  • Design tools, practices, and scaffolds that promote effective collaboration skills.  See above and Collaboration articles for ideas.
Early Implementation Steps
  • Implement tools, practices and scaffolds that develop teacher’s and students’ collaboration skills.
  • Use informal assessments (observations supported by checklists) and student reflections to identify and fine tune effective strategies
Advanced Implementation Steps
  • Have students reflect and identify the collaboration strategies that are working best for themselves and why.
  • Incorporate effective strategies into classroom routines that promote strong collaboration in all student teams
5-relatedstuff

89: Emotional Self-Control Tools & Strategies

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Emotion Self-Control Competency:
  • The ability to manage impulse and/or distressing feelings
  • The ability to stay calm and think clearly in stressful situations
 Why is this so important:
  • People with high levels of restraint often tend to be more motivated, better leaders, more coachable
  • High stress environments are common and can hijack higher thinking functions (see below)
  • Stress can reduce leader’s access to full EQ and IQ potential
  • Emotional distress is contagious – can hijack a team’s higher functioning.  Leader’s emotions are the most contagious.
  • Amygdala hijack:
    • Amygdala is the part of the brain that regulates the fight, flight, or freeze response
    • Amygdala can flood the brain with stress hormones before prefrontal cortex (PFC) can restrain this
    • PFC regulates executive functioning (understanding, deciding, recalling, memorizing, controlling emotions)
    • Amygdala (15 ms) is faster than PFC (100 ms) so we feel before we think!
    • PFC has limited processing power – can only handle a limited number of thoughts and function well
    • Evolutionary tick – amygdala reacts before rational brain has time to mull things over
    • Amygdala triggers include: strongs emotions (joy, anger, anxiety) and feelings of betrayal
    • Amygdala & PFC have a zero sum relationship – when one is strong, the other is weak
  • Hope! – The amygdala response is temporary.
8 Strategies for Emotional Self Control:
  1. Practice self awareness:
    • Being self aware can help build self motivation and ability to inspire others.
    • Awareness equals responsibility.
    • Being aware helps one respond rather than react.
    • Be aware of: strengths, weaknesses, moods, varying feelings, behavior, patterns, your story
    • Evaluate your predictability – higher predictability builds trust with team mates
    • Self awareness can help one self regulate and become more predictable.
    • Tips to build self awareness:
      • Self and peer assess oneself on 3 areas:
        • Competency – job skills are technically sound
        • Predictability – consistency of actions
        • Dependability – can be counted to come through in crunch time
      • Compare self and peer assessments and seek out similarities & differences
      • What areas need most improvement?
      • Possible next steps to improve?
  2. Affect labeling:
    • Labeling feelings helps reduce their intensity and returns function to PFC.
    • Labeling feelings can help one accept and normalize feelings.
    • Tips:
      • Label feeling, normalize it and nurture a new direction or action.
      • In AA, You have to name it to tame it.
      • Name emotions several times a day.
      • Develop vocabulary to describe nuances in feelings.
      • Identify patterns in common experienced feelings.
      • Identify gaps in experiences feelings – rare feelings.
  3. The Emotional Audit:
    • Ask yourself emotional audit questions – wait 5 seconds to get an answer to each questions:
      • What am I thinking?
        • accesses basal ganglia which integrates movement, feelings, thoughts
      • What am I feeling?
        • accesses basal ganglia – see above
      • What do I want now?
        • accesses cerebellum – tied to PFC, carries out executive function
      • How am I getting my own way?
        • accesses PFC – learns from mistakes
      • What do I need to do differently now?
        • accesses PFC – boss of executive functions (planning, goal setting, insight)
        • accesses cingulate gyrus – brain’s gear shifter – moves between & selects ideas
    • Goal = downplay amygdala and light up rational parts of brain
    • Other tips:
      • Recall a hijack moment and answer 5 questions for that time to learn more about what was happening
      • Do audit 4 times a day and try to identify patterns
  4. Putting on the brakes:
    • Ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) – part of PFC that helps with focusing and eliminating distractions
    • VLPFC uses a lot of brain energy – why stopping urges is so difficult
    • Ability to put on brakes reduces with each application (eating up brain brake pads) – self control is a limited resource
    • Window of opportunity for exercising self control over an impulse is short
    • Each time we redirect an action, the new pathway gets stronger
    • Mindfulness can help increase our choices
    • Reflection exercises:
      • What actions help you self regulate the best?
      • Watch how others manage their emotions
      • What are your cues that you’re getting overwhelmed?
      • What activities help you drain emotional intensity?
      • What activities recharge you?
  5. Mindfulness
    • Paying attention to the present moment without being swept away by judgments
    • Brain hygiene
    • Builds awareness of brain’s perceptions and intentions
    • Promotes health, resilience, flexibility, calmness, focus
    • Builds neuroplasticity – ability to grow new neural connections
    • Applications:
      • Spend 5 minutes focusing on the sensations of breathing – also awareness of body’s feelings of the environments
        • How did you feel after exercise?
        • How did attention and energy vary?
        • Any patterns emerge?
        • What can you do to make this a more daily practice?
  6. Shuttling Exercise: Internal & External Awareness
    • Exercise for building mindfulness
    • Exercise:  Spend some time, narrating what you are aware of outside and inside alternately
    • Reflection questions:
      • Which focus is easier – inside or outside?
      • Do you feel more grounded after exercise?
      • Do you feel any energy shifts?
      • Any common themes in what you noticed?
      • Was it hard to accept your results?
      • What do you need to do to be kinder about your process and results?
  7. Identifying Triggers
    • Trigger = things that make you upset, frustrated, impatient
    • Reflection questions:
      • What are your top triggers?
      • What are your most frequent triggers?
      • Most intense?
      • Less patience for?
      • Most draining?
  8. Reappraisal
    • Giving an experience a new different, and more constructive meaning
    • Questioning process lights up executive functions
    • Reappraisal questions:
      • What can I learn from this?
      • How can I turn this into a meaningful experience?
      • What would I tell someone else to do in this situation?
      • Is what I’m telling myself really true?
      • What evidence is there to support my interpretations of the event?
      • What are 2-3 other interpretations?
      • What is the best thing for me to do right now?
    • Reflection questions:
      • Which reappraisal questions work best?
      • What patterns emerge in emotions?
      • Most common emotion?
      • Do your interpretations of situations get better over time?
Developing an Action Plan:
  • Which practices do you already do that you want to continue?
  • What new practice do you want to incorporate?
  • What resources do you need to make this happen?
  • Who can support you and hold you accountable?
  • What are your immediate next steps?

 

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Emotional control is about using strategies to pool brain resources towards higher reasoning regions during times of high stress.  During stressful times, the amygdala response (flight or fight) can hijack executive functions (reasoning, planning, goal setting, EQ, IQ, etc).  Learning how to be aware and create a delay for executive functions to overcome the temporary amygdala response can help teachers and students make better decisions during stressful classroom situations.

 

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Preparation Steps
  • Learn more about the brain – develop a visual that labels the amygdala, the prefrontal cortex, the basal ganglia, the Ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, cerebellum, cingulate gyrus.  Could create this in Thinglink to add interactive labels that describe functions for each region and strategies / situations that activate each region.  (Note:  If you get to this before me or find this online somewhere, please share)
  • Try out exercises & strategies above and note how they feel, what’s learned, and how to model the strategies
  • Develop scaffolding materials (visuals, instructions, handouts, etc) for activities that you think will translate well with your students
Early Implementation Steps
  • Teach students about amygdala hijack and ways to counteract it – have them tell stories of being overwhelmed by and of overcoming the amygdala hijack – how did these experiences feel?  what were the consequences / effects of these responses?
  • Implement more than 1 strategy above as part of agency or collaboration scaffolding
  • Have students reflect on exercises (see prompts above for starters) and communicate what they’re learning about themselves in terms of current and potential abilities
Advanced Implementation Steps
  • Have students evaluate different exercises and identify which strategies can yield the best results for them and why
  • Have students brainstorm which exercises they can incorporate into daily practice and what they could gain from these new practices
  • Incorporate strategies (or related practices) into daily life if you find them helpful

 

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88: Summarizing & Note Taking

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Summary of Research on Summarization:
  • Summarizing involves deleting, substituting, and keeping information
  • The skills above require deep analysis of material
  • Being aware of explicit structure of information helps with summarization (another reason to scaffold academic literacy)
Classroom Strategies:
  • Rules-Based Strategies:
    • MODEL how to apply rules such as:
      • delete trivial info
      • delete redundant info
      • replace lists with grouping words that summarize lists
      • select or create topic sentences
    • Use Think Aloud strategy while modeling rules
  • Summary Frames:
    • Series of questions that highlight critical elements for specific types of info
    • 6 Summary Frames – click here to see related questions
      • Narrative
      • Topic-Restriction-Illustration
      • Definition
      • Argumentation
      • Problem/Solution
      • Conversation
  • Reciprocal teaching
    • Student arranged in teacher groups
    • Leader of group facilitates discussion in which students take a lesson or reading and
      • summarize the lesson/reading
      • question – ask questions about the lesson/reading
      • clarify – try to answer questions
      • predict – predict what they will learn or do next
Research and Theory on Note Taking
  • Verbatim note taking is the least effective method – recording everything makes it too hard to synthesize info
  • Notes should be viewed as living documents
  • Notes should be used as study guides for tests
  • The more notes, the better
Classroom Strategies for Note Taking
  • Provide models – notes taken by teacher
  • Present students with a variety of note-taking formats such as
    • Informal outline
      • subordinate ideas are more indented than big ideas
    • Webbing
      • sizes of circles represent relative importance of ideas
      • lines show relationships between ideas
    • Combinations
      • Combines webbing and informal outline (like a double entry journal)
        • left column = informal outline
        • right column = webbing
      • Also includes a horizontal strip at the bottom for summary statements
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Summarizing and note taking are powerful learning strategies.  Often these skills are un-scaffolded student activities and expectations.  Teaching students how to summarize and take notes can help them become more independent learners.

4-nowwhat
Preparation Steps
  • Pre-assess students’ note-taking and summarizing skills – identify their strengths and gaps
  • Identify which strategies (see above) could enhance students’ summarizing and note taking skills
  • Gather / prepare graphic organizers and visuals that go with selected strategies
Early Implementation Steps
  • Model (use think aloud and graphic organizers) summarizing and/or note-taking strategies
  • Give students opportunities to practice strategies
Advanced Implementation Steps
  • Have students reflect on the impact different note-taking strategies are having on their learning
  • Let students use their reflections to choose the most effective note-taking strategy that fits their learning style and preferences
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84: I-Search Papers

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I-Search Paper 
  • Similar to research paper except
    • Student chooses topic
    • Written in 1st person
  • Uses:
    • Build personal curiosity and tools to pursue it
    • Students can learn how to
      • narrow and deep dive into a topic
      • use research skills (identify valid sources, annotate sources, identify biases)
  • Play by play
    • Topic Search:
      • Brainstorming
        • start creating brainstorm lists individually
        • then share in pairs and teams and revises lists
      • Narrow brainstorm list to 4 topics
      • Conduct preliminary research and have student interview team mates about potential topics:
        • Why do you care?
        • Who do you already know?
        • How do you plan to learn more?
      • Narrow topics to 2 choices – Top Pick and Plan B in case Top Pick hits a dead end
      • Variations:
        • Could brainstorm content item lists
        • Try to build bridges between top personal & content item choices
    • Identifying the Audience:
      • Other students and teacher
      • Could try to guide students to recruit audience from a group that ties to to their topic – if you do this prepare recruiting email and recruiting phone call templates
    • Prewriting Part I
      • Use a lot of pre-writing activities (WTLs) to process research such as:
        • Use double entry journal strategey- columns: what I think I know, questions I have (brainstorm list based on prior knowledge and for planning research next steps)
    • Gathering Information
      • Student create anothe double entry journal – columns = questions organized under major questions, possible sources
      • Books:  secure help from media specialist
      • Interviews: helps students design questionnaires, model interview process
      • Internet:
        • teach search query commands for search engines, how to use databases, and how to identify valid sources
        • provide internet source sheets that guide students in assessing and annotating websites
    • Prewriting Part II
      • Underline key information in references and write note as to why it’s underlined
      • Start with 4 questions on 4 Sheets of papers – color-code highlight sources to match up information that addresses top 4 questions
      • Jot down notes summarize info related to each question
    • Drafting
      • Main parts of paper:
        • Introduction
        • Description of search (optional, omit if it leads to repetitive description)
        • What was found
        • How to use information and related questions
    • Revisions
      • Facilitate revision meetings with writing teams who discuss
        • Introduction
          • How does writing grab attention?
          • How does intro hint a prior knowledge and interest?
          • How does writer help unfamiliar audience?
          • How does writer make topic appealing?
        • Question answers
          • Best evidence?
          • Missing evidence?
          • Off topic evidence?
        • Conclusion
          • Connections to intro ideas?
          • Follow-up questions and next steps?
          • Lingering lessons
    • Editing
      • X out common errors such as 2nd person
      • Replace 2nd person with real nouns
    •  Sharing the Writing
      • Convert paper to shorter feature articles for school newspaper
      • Read aloud papers at presentations
    • Troubleshooting
      • Plagiarism
        • Use WTL assignments to process research
        • Teach students parenthetical citaions

 

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Letting students choose their own I-search paper topics can help them be more invested in their processes and products.  Guiding the research and prewriting processes with Writing-to Learn tasks can helps students process information, create drafts, and avoid plagiarism.  See WTL 1 and  2 articles.

 

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Preparation Steps
  • Find time of year when I-seatch paper would be appropriate
    • Time of year dedicated to process standards
    • After students have already practiced several writing stages
  • Prepare resources related to the stages describe above
  • Prepare a project calendar that includes:
    • research time
    • prewriting time
    • in class writing time
    • critique and feedback lessons
    • conference times
    • milestone deadlines assigned to writing artifacts in writing stages
    • rehearsal and presentation time
    • student self reflection times
Early Implementation Steps
  • Implement project plan prepped above
  • Use formative feedback to fine time in progress project plan
Advanced Implementation Steps
  • Recruit real panelists (or guide student to recruit real audiences) to read their work
  • Have student polish and summarize work for school blog or school magazine
  • Feature work in Learning Fairs

 

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83: Learning Fairs

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Learning Fairs:
  • Students present work to community in poster session like environment (think science fair)
  • Uses:
    • Students study topics in depth
    • Students present to wide audience
    • Student learn field research techniques
    • Opportunity to integrate subjects – ELA, Science, Math, etc
  • Play by play:
    • Topic Search
      • Identity primary sources
        • Students brainstorm people they can interview
        • Students brainstorm scientific questions they can investigate
      • Communicate expectations – product formats & criteria
    • Identify the audience
      • Recruit varied panel consisting of teachers of different courses, students, family members, other community members
    • Gathering information
      • Provide thinking sheets to guide research
        • Help students design interviews
        • Help students design investigations
      • Provide in-class research time so that parents don’t help too much
      • Expose students to models and discuss common features and identify strategies
      • Allow time for multiple investigations or interviews – can learn from first iteration and apply lessons to later iterations
    • Drafting, revising, & editing:
    • Sharing the writing:
      • Create speeches and visual aides based on papers
      • Allow rehearsal time prior to Learning Fair
    • Possible Grading Criteria:
      • Engaging beginning
      • Clear controlling theme
      • Thorough, clear supporting evidence
      • Good organization of anecdotes and arguments
      • Free of grammar and spelling errors
      • Creative, school appropriate
    • Troubleshooting
      • Students make early errors that affect end products
        • Give feedback throughout the duration of project – don’t wait till the end
    • Grading tips:
      • Recruit external panel – alumni, teachers from other courses, community members, experts
      • Design easy-to-use assessment tools for panels – rubrics or checklists or criteria with room to assign Likert scale scores

 

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Learning fairs provide opportunities for the school and local communities to gather and celebrate student work.  Grade level teams can coordinate to create complementary learning fair products.  Real broad audiences can inspire students to product their best work.  To prevent student learning fairs from become parent fairs, provide a lot of in class feedback and work time.

 

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Preparation Steps
  • Decide if you want to coordinate with grade-level teachers (or cross grade-level teams) and meet regularly to plan logistics (common themes, fair dates, variety of complimentary products, etc)
  • Recruit panelists
  • Set a learning fair date, secure space and publicize fair date, location, and theme to the community
  • Decide on target content and target genres and prepare scaffolding and assessment – see above for ideas
  • Design a project calendar that includes:
    • ample time for writing phases above
    • ample time for in class work time and feedback from various sources and revision time
    • rehearsal time
    • milestone deadlines for different stages of products
Early Implementation Steps
  • Implement project plan – see activities planned in preparation phase.
  • Use formative feedback to fine tune scaffolding and assessment as needed.
  • Use formative feedback to teach students how to revise work during in class work time
  • Facilitate lessons during all writing stages
  • Facilitate time for rehearsals and final round of feedback
  • Organize panel and panel resources (evaluation materials, assignments to teams, etc)
  • Facilitate Learning Fair and Enjoy (takes lots of pictures)
Advanced Implementation Steps
  • Could tie Learning Fair to real contests – if so, be sure to scaffold and assess content criteria
  • Make Learning Fairs a regular event (2x per year per grade level?) at school in order to build community moral and relationships

 

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